Monthly Archives: March, 2009

globalization

Definition:

            Globalization is the process of designing and developing an application that supports localized user interfaces and regional data for users in multiple cultures. In the .NET Framework, the CultureInfo class represents information about a specific culture. This information includes the writing system, calendars in use, date and time formatting conventions, numeric and currency conventions, and sorting rules.

 

The System.Globalization namespace contains classes that define culture-related information, including

*      Language

*      Country/region

*      Calendars in use,

*      Format patterns for dates,

*      Currency, and numbers,

*      And the sort order for strings.

Use these classes to simplify the process of developing a world-ready application. By passing a CultureInfo object representing the current culture to methods in this namespace, you can initiate the correct set of rules and data for the current user’s culture.

Web site globalization refers to enabling a web site to deal with non-English speaking visitors, i.e. internationalizing the site’s back-end software, designing a multi-lingual architecture, and localizing the site’s static or dynamic content.

 

What is the difference between globalization and localization?

 

  • Globalization is the process of making a product multi-lingual. All language-related aspects of the program are separated from the code, and all aspects, which vary with target country, are handled in a country-independent way.
  • Localization is the process of adapting a global product for a particular language and country. Localization includes translations and other conversion, and takes into account local practices and culture, providing a product, which is comfortable to use in the target country.
  • Translation is involved in most aspects of localization. Accuracy and appropriateness of translation are key to overall product quality.
  • Retrofitting is an informal term for localization of a product, which was not designed to be global. It is the first step taken by most companies entering the global marketplace.

dot Net Framework

Definition:

            This is the environment for building, deploying and running Web Services and other applications. It contains three main parts

·          CLR

·          Framework Classes

·          unified class libraries

 

Common Language Runtime (CLR):

            The common language runtime is the execution engine for .NET Framework applications. It provides a number of services, including the following:

o    Code management (loading and execution)

o    Application memory isolation

o    Verification of type safety

o    Conversion of IL to native code

o    Access to metadata (enhanced type information)

o    Managing memory for managed objects

o    Enforcement of code access security

o    Exception handling, including cross-language exceptions

o    Interoperation between managed code, COM objects, and pre-existing   DLLs (unmanaged code and data)

o    Automation of object layout

o    Support for developer services (profiling, debugging, and so on)

       CLS and CTS are there in CLR.

 

Common Language Specification (CLS):

            It is the set of guidelines for the language supporting the CLS to follow, so that it can communicate with other .NET languages in a seamless manner. The CLS is a set of constructs and constraints that serves as a guide for library writers and compiler writers.

 

Common Type System (CTS): 

            The common type system is a rich type system, built into the common language runtime that supports the types and operations found in most programming languages.

 

Types of Application in .Net Frame work

o    Console application

o    Windows Application

o    Web application

o    Class library

User control

Finance Terms definition

Credit Risk:

The risk of the loss arising on account of non-payment of interest or principle dues by the debtor, the two components of credit risk are “Ability to pay” and “willingness to pay”.

Credit score:

A credit score is a numerical expression on a statistical analysis of a entities credit files, to represent the creditworthiness of the entity.    The scores range from 300-850, lower score indicating that higher chance of defaulting on a loan and the higher score representing a better chance that the lender will get repaid back.

Collateral:

The property/assets made available by the barrower as a security against a loan, which can be seized in case of default.

Debt Instruments:

A written promise to repay a debt, for example bills, bonds, notes, CDs, Commercial papers and bankers acceptance.

Contingent Liability:

Contingent Liability is a liability, which may or may not occur. It will be decided by the future actions of the organization. That means, the future action will decide an activity as liability or not

Liability:

The word liability refers to fault. The person, who is at fault, is liable to another because of her/his actions or failure to act. The liability simply describes some form of obligation or responsibility. It represents the payment provided for damage caused through actions or negligence.

Obligation:

            The action of binding oneself by social, legal or moral tie (OR) The constraining power of promise, contract or sense of duty (OR) Any debt, written promise or duty

Credit Exposure:

            The potential for loss in the event of default

Credit Risk:

            Risk due to uncertainty in a counterparty’s ability to meet its obligations

Expected Loss:

            Expected value of losses due to default over a specified horizon given the exposure and historical performance. This can be thought of us what is expected to be lost on average

EL = PD * LGD * EAD

Probability of Default (PD):

            The likelihood that a barrower will not be able to pay its credit obligations, commonly measured as a percentage applied to the next 12 months.

Loss Given Default (LGD):

            The fraction of credit exposure that will not be recovered in the event of default on a specified obligation

            The loss sustained by the lender after the barrower defaults

Exposure at Default (EAD):

            The amount of credit a lender has extended or is obligated to extend at the time of default.     

C# Glassaries

Meta Data:

            Definition:

                        It contains the data about the object that is the Name of an object, the bases, interfaces implemented in that object and also the types and members of an object etc. 

Manifest:

            Definition:

                        It contains the information about the assembly like identity of an assembly, Scope of the assembly and also contains the security permissions.

 JIT Compiler:

            Definition:

                        During Run Time, the CLR invokes the JIT compiler to convert the MSIL into Native code (i.e. Executable Binary Code). When the Function is called, the IL of the function’s body is converted to Native code Just In Time.

            Types:

    • PreJIT
    • EconoJIT
    • Standard JIT

Class:

Definition:

            Class is the collection of object and it will contain member variables and member functions.

List of Classes available:

            Static class: Static classes are sealed and therefore cannot be inherited. Static classes cannot contain a constructor, although it is still possible to declare a static constructor to assign initial values or set up some static state

            Sealed class: Sealed classes are used to restrict the inheritance feature of object oriented programming. Once a class is defined as sealed class, this class cannot be inherited.

            Abstract class: Abstract class can simply defined as incomplete class. It contains one or more incomplete methods called abstract methods. It leaves the implementation of these methods to derived or sub classes. Since abstract classes are incomplete, they can not be instantiated        

Polymorphism:

Definition:

            It means “Ability to take more than one form”. An operation may exhibit different behavior and different instances. Behavior is depends upon the operation.

 

Polymorphism is the ability for classes to provide different implementations of methods that are called by the same name.

Types:

1.       Compile Time Polymorphism

2.       Runtime Polymorphism

Implementation:

            Compile time polymorphism is done by functions and operators overloading.

            Runtime time polymorphism is done using inheritance and virtual functions.

Assemblies:

            Definition:

                        It is the building block of an application which provides all required execution information to “CLR” and also the Assembly is physical grouping of logical units.

  Types:

  •  Public Assembly

This is used by multiple applications and this is stored in Global Assembly Catch (GAC). We have to give cryptographically Strong Name for these shared assemblies.

  • Private Assembly:

This is used by a single application and this assembly is stored in that application installation folde

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